African-Americans Have Long Defied White Supremacy and Celebrated Black Culture in Public Spaces

An image of George Floyd was projected on the statue of Confederate General Robert E. Lee in Richmond, Virginia, on June 20.REUTERS/Jay Paul

By Shannon M. Smith – Blacks challenged white dominance of public space using parades, conventions and other events. In Charleston, South Carolina, Black citizens in the 1880s and 1890s mocked and defaced the original monument to John C. Calhoun.

From Richmond to New York City to Seattle, anti-racist activists are getting results as Confederate monuments are coming down by the dozens.

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