The NFL is Confronting Racism, But Are Black Quarterbacks Continuing to be Stereotyped?

Mike Tomlin (shown) is the longest serving Black head coach currently working in the NFL, having taken over as Pittsburgh Steelers head coach in 2007.

Despite monetary success and awards, Black quarterbacks, past and present, say they still face an uphill battle against prejudice, especially when entering the league.

For quarterbacks who threw for more than 3,000 yards in 2019, three of the top four — as ranked by passer rating — were Black: Mahomes, Lamar Jackson and Russell Wilson.
That leaves out their individual rushing efforts too, of which Jackson’s was substantial, becoming the first quarterback in NFL history to rush for over 1,000 yards as well as throw for over 3,000 yards.
That success has run over into 2020. Wilson’s current passer rating is 119.5 which, if the season ended today, would be the third-best season passer rating ever.
Russell Wilson is having the best season of any quarterback this year, holding a passer rating of 119.5.

This NFL season’s opening game between the Kansas City Chiefs and the Houston Texans featured two of the most exciting young talents in the game: 2018 league MVP and 2020 Super Bowl MVP Mahomes of the Chiefs and the Texans’ Deshaun Watson.
Prior to his devastating season-ending injury in week five, Prescott had been leading the league in passing yards, attempts and completions this season.
Mahomes recently signed a 10-year contract extension reportedly worth nearly half a billion dollars and, while not on that level, Watson has signed a $156 million four-year contract extension. Alongside Wilson, the trio are the top three highest earning players in the NFL.
Are we seeing a change in attitudes and treatment, or is the struggle still as prevalent as ever?

Historic experience

Few know the battle African American quarterbacks have faced like Warren Moon. The 63-year-old Moon, is the only Black quarterback in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, but didn’t have an easy route into the league.
Having gone undrafted in 1978, Moon went to Canada, winning five consecutive Grey Cups — the Canadian Football League title — before he was given a chance in the NFL with the Houston Oilers in 1984, aged 28. He says what he experienced wasn’t racism, but rather racial stereotyping stacked against him.
“If it was racism then they [Black players] wouldn’t be allowed to play the game at all,” he told CNN. “But the stereotype was that we can only play certain positions.
“And the quarterback position was the position that a lot of people didn’t think we could play for different reasons, whether it was the leadership, whether it was being able to think, be able to make critical decisions at critical times. You know, be the face of a franchise, all those different things that go along with being a franchise quarterback.”
Warren Moon is the only Black quarterback in the NFL Hall of Fame.

While Moon believes things have improved for Black quarterbacks since he entered the league, has enough changed?
According to Pro Football Reference, when Tom Brady entered the NFL in 2000, eight of the 31 starting quarterbacks during each team’s opening game of the season were Black.
In 2020, 10 Black quarterbacks started for the now 32 teams in their respective first games. This was down to nine by week two after an LA Chargers team doctor accidentally punctured one of the quarterback Tyrod Taylor’s lungs when attempting to administer a shot to Taylor’s ribs.
When 60% of the league’s players are Black, and 70% of the players identify as people of color, according to The Institute of Diversity and Equality in Sport, the number is significantly lower than it statistically should be.
In a response to CNN, the league in a statement said: “There are a record-setting 10 starting Black quarterbacks this season. The two highest-paid players in the NFL are Black quarterbacks. The last two seasons’ MVPs have been Black quarterbacks.
“The NFL is undertaking short-, intermediate-, and long-term diversity identification initiatives for both non-football and football personnel to ensure more opportunities for African Americans in leadership management positions across the league.”

League entry

The battle for Black quarterbacks begins with entry into the NFL. According to a leading academic, Black quarterbacks have historically found it more difficult being drafted into the league than their White counterparts.
Dr. Judson L. Jeffries, a professor of African American and African studies at the Ohio State University, says Black quarterbacks have been historically perceived as less intelligent, seen instead as simply athletes.
“The knock on Black quarterbacks was they didn’t have the intellect or academics to play the position,” he tells CNN. “They could run, but when it comes to learning a playbook, reading defenses, learning sophisticated schemes, they weren’t able to do that.”
A 2008 quantitative study by Jeffries and Matthew Bigler showed that “draft experts buy into and perpetuate racial stereotypes about Blacks that adversely impact Black college quarterbacks’ chances of matriculating to the National Football League.”
The study also said: “Blacks are consistently rated more negatively in the areas of leadership and intelligence/decision making.”
2017 essay by Rockell Brown Burton, a professor of media, and Tristan F. Jones, a contributing writer and journalist, published in the book “Africana Race and Communication,” went as far to say that the “study is evidence of the modernized social construction of Black quarterbacks by mass media, with a primary focus on their physical attributes and descriptions that better resemble auctioned slaves than chosen leaders of men.”
Though Jeffries thinks a lot has changed in the intervening 12 years since his study, he continues to have reservations about whether perceptions of Black and White quarterbacks are equal.
“Now it appears in 2020, much to my surprise but much to my delight, that [prejudice] has dissipated significantly in terms of judging Black quarterbacks that way,” he says.
“However, here’s the rub: Even though things have significantly progressed, a lot of scouts and coaches when they see an African American quarterback will immediately frame them as someone who is a great athlete, as opposed to someone who is a great quarterback.”
Jeffries cites the treatment Jackson received when he entered the league.
A Heisman Trophy winner as a sophomore at the University of Louisville, Baltimore Ravens’ Jackson was seen by doubters as just a runner, rather than someone who could throw, make critical decisions and lead too.
Dr. Judson Jeffries, a professor of African American Studies at the Ohio State University, says Lamar Jackson's refusal to participate in run drills was "huge" for Black quarterbacks.

At the 2018 NFL Scouting Combine, he refused to take part in run drills, such as the 40-yard dash, to draw people’s attention to his passing ability.
Jeffries says Jackson’s decision not to take part in running drills, especially the 40-yard dash, was a significant moment in NFL history.
“That was huge,” he says. “In terms of standing his ground, verbally, and being vocal that [he is] a quarterback.
“Coupled with that, [Jackson’s decision to say] ‘I am not going to participate in the kind of drills that will undermine my ability to be viewed as a quarterback and drafted as a quarterback.'”
In other words, Jeffries says, “Don’t draft me and then talk about me playing wide receiver or running back.”
Unfortunately for Jackson, teams that needed quarterbacks didn’t want to take the risk.
He fell to the final pick of the first round, where he was taken by the Ravens. Jackson was visibly distressed as he took to the stage to shake NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell’s hand.
Some four other quarterbacks were taken ahead of him, none of whom have yet approached the same level of success — including Josh Rosen, whose recent signing to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers practice squad marks his third team in three seasons.
The reigning NFL MVP, and only the second unanimous MVP in NFL history, Jackson has since proved the doubters wrong.
Lamar Jackson became the second unanimous NFL MVP in only his second season.

A recent Sports Illustrated article about Jackson goes deeper into the Florida native’s journey to the NFL and the structural barriers he faced as a young Black quarterback. The article speaks of the dedication and support of his mother and coach, and implies that without them he may not have reached the NFL as a quarterback.
Jeffries says he thinks others in a similar position to Jackson will be inspired and are “more likely to stand their ground verbally,” but “the jury is still out to what degree they will actually take that stand that Lamar Jackson took.”
Jalen Hurts, a 2020 second round selection for the Philadelphia Eagles, went through a similar process after experiencing significant success in college.
With Alabama, he reached the 2017 College Football Playoff title game as a true freshman and was the starting quarterback of the 2018 championship team. After losing playing time the following season to Tua Tagovailoa and winning the SEC title game as an injury replacement, Hurts transferred to Oklahoma and excelled. He finished second in the Heisman Trophy vote his senior year.
Rookie quarterback Jalen Hurts faced question marks over his ability to be an NFL quarterback despite a successful college career.

Despite all of this success at the quarterback position, at the 2020 NFL Combine, Hurts was asked by members of the media if he would consider changing positions. Hurts answered assuredly but respectfully: “I’ve always been a team-first guy. But I think I’m a quarterback. I think that’s that.”
And, as Mahomes discussed in a recent interview with GQ magazine, this focus on the athletic attributes of Black quarterbacks at the expense of decision-making doesn’t end when a player is drafted.
“In my first year, what annoyed me more than anything is that people thought it was just my arm,” Mahomes said. “Everybody just talked about my arm instead of talking about how I was making the right decisions, going to the right place.”
He compared his experience to that of Ravens quarterback Jackson. “He threw for over 30 touchdowns, but everybody just wanted to talk about the runs.”

Scrutiny and prejudice

Having already been drafted in the first round of the 2018 Major League Baseball Draft, the 2019 NFL Draft’s number one overall selection Kyler Murray repeatedly had his commitment to football questioned. This was despite firm assurances from Murray of his desire to play in the NFL.
Kyler Murray was named 2019 NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year.

The scrutiny he faced for his leadership and football study work led to prominent figures, such as ESPN’s Stephen A. Smith, to call it “systemic racism.”
In the same segment, former NFL defensive end Marcus Spears spoke of the way Murray had been picked apart by draft experts as “play[ing] into the Black quarterback effect.”
Murray proved the doubters wrong by winning the 2019 NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year award.
Murray was the first overall selection in the 2019 NFL Draft.

The draft positions of some Black quarterbacks have raised some eyebrows.
Mahomes and Watson were the second and third quarterbacks selected in the 2017 Draft, behind Mitchell Trubisky, a White quarterback and someone whose inexperience was brought into question. The Chicago Bears took him second overall.
Incidentally, Watson has said he thinks he would have been drafted higher had he not been labeled a “dual threat” quarterback — a stigmatic indicator that a quarterback is more of a runner than a passer.
“He’s a dual threat, so he can’t read coverages; he can’t read defenses, he can’t be accurate,” Watson said during a quarterback conference run for Black players.
In 2019, Daniel Jones — a White quarterback from Duke — was taken sixth overall by the New York Giants even though Dwayne Haskins, a Black quarterback of college football powerhouse Ohio State, was still available. The choice baffled many, with former pro Cris Carter saying he thought racial bias played a part in the decision.
“I just can’t go on without saying this: If Dwayne Haskins, as an African-American, goes to Duke and puts up those mediocre stats — seventh in the conference. He’s not drafted Day 1 or damn Day 2,” Carter said on “First Things First” at the time.
“So, when you start talking about ‘a guy can’t comprehend’ — that stuff is racial.”
Haskins was drafted 15th overall by rival Washington. Both in their second NFL seasons, Haskins and Jones have yet to turn around their struggling franchises, with Haskins benched after week four.
The Giants were contacted by CNN but declined to comment.
After Daniel Jones (right) was drafted ahead of Dwayne Haskins (left) in the 2019 NFL Draft, some questioned whether the decision was racially motivated.

Positions of power

In a 2019 article in ESPN’s The Undefeated, Quincy Avery, who has worked with Black quarterbacks — including Deshaun Watson and Jalen Hurts — says that, in the past, “overt prejudice” limited the opportunities of Black quarterbacks.
“Today it’s systemic,” he said. “They are afforded opportunities, but they aren’t allowed to be average because they don’t have enough decision-makers who look like them.”
2015 study published in the Journal of Sports Economics found that between 2001 and 2009, when controlling for injury, age, experience, performance, team investment, backup quality and bye weeks, Black quarterbacks in the NFL were found to be 1.98 to 2.46 times more likely to be benched than their White counterparts.
Avery said without Black coaches, coordinators and general managers, opportunities for Black quarterbacks are limited.
Mike Tomlin (right) is the longest serving Black head coach currently working in the NFL, having taken over as Pittsburgh Steelers head coach in 2007.

According to the NFL’s Diversity & Inclusion Report for 2020, of the 31 head coaches, coordinators and general managers hired between February 4 2019 and February 2 2020 only seven were men of color: one general manager, one head coach and five defensive coordinators.
During the same time period, six of the 31 departing head coaches, coordinators or general managers were men of color. This means the NFL only made a net gain of one person of color in one of these positions of power from 2019 to 2020.
Two general managers are Black and the Washington Football Team’s Jason Wright is the NFL’s first and only Black president. Only three of 32 NFL head coaches are Black, the same number as when the league adopted the Rooney Rule in 2003 which stipulated a team must interview a minority candidate before reaching a final decision. As recently as 2018, seven head coaches were Black.
The Washington Football Team president Jason Wright (right) is the first and only Black president of an NFL organization.

As a result of the latest report, the Rooney Rule was amended in May this year. Teams will now be required to interview two minority candidates for head coaching positions, at least one minority candidate for coordinator vacancies and one external candidate for front-office positions.
In its response for comment, the NFL told CNN “enhancements to [the] Rooney Rule will increase opportunities for growth, development, and advancement for minorities across all facets of the League and clubs, both for non-football employees and football personnel.”
The statement added: “The league is also implementing universal data collection to gather diversity information from all 32 NFL clubs. This information includes demographic details by position such as race/ethnicity, gender, generation, and more.”

Positive change?

Moon, however, is positive about the direction the league is going, saying Black quarterbacks are now getting the opportunities he wasn’t when trying to break into the NFL.
“African American quarterbacks now are getting more opportunities than they ever have before,” he says. “And I think that’s why you see so many of them flourishing in the league right now.”
The current crop of supremely talented African American quarterbacks, says Moon, are successfully changing people’s perceptions of Black quarterbacks.
“Somebody said success is when [you do] something other people want to copy. You see African American quarterbacks are doing very, very well,” he says, reeling off the achievements of Wilson, Murray, Mahomes and Jackson.
“When other teams see this, they say, ‘I want to have a successful quarterback, maybe this is what I need.’
“When African Americans have success, it’s going to breed more opportunities for other African Americans. That’s what you see going on right now.”
Moon knows that the work he and other quarterbacks, like Doug Williams — the first Black quarterback to win the Super Bowl and to be named Super Bowl MVP — paved the way.
Doug Williams was the first Black quarterback to lead his team to Super Bowl glory, doing so in the 1987 season.

“We also know that if we did well, if we played well at a high level, that is going to help the next generation of guys get more opportunities,” he says.
“And we sit down, we see the game flourishing at that position right now for African Americans. It makes us all proud.”
Eric Bieniemy, the Kansas City Chiefs’ offensive coordinator, himself an African American, believes it’s time to end labels, and says current Black quarterbacks think so too.
“All of these guys just want to be labeled as a football player,” he said in an August press conference. “They want to be labeled as a quarterback. They don’t care about their skin color.
“They just want to make sure that they’re representing and doing it the right way and providing a road map for the next upcoming young black African American.”
In the aforementioned GQ interview, Bieniemy’s quarterback Mahomes said: “We’re changing people’s perspective, showing that no matter what race you are, you can go out there and play the position the right way, and win a lot of football games doing it.”
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